Workstream 2: Battery Cells

This workstream focuses both on research, development and innovation (RDI) and first industrial deployment (FID) for new and innovative battery cells. More specific, the objectives are to enable a large-scale competitive production of next-generation LIBs by large-scale FID activities and a “pre-industrialization” of all-solid-state batteries (ASSB) for automotive and industrial applications. Further, first industrial deployments of innovative redox flow batteries (RFB) for stationary applications and ultracapacitors, to be applied in power functionalities in mobile and stationary applications, are planned. This WS aims at ensuring innovative production processes – including energy efficiency and sustainable processes –, ambitious performance characteristics (referring to energy density, charging rate, cycling ability and safety), competitive costs, and functional targets of future electrified mass mobility and battery cell demand within the EU.

The production processes targeted as part of the WS will allow the manufacturing of equipment for innovative and energy-efficient production employing novel processes like dry coating or battery cell formation procedures to reduce the CO2 footprint and match the European energy transition objectives. Additionally, the implementation of large-scale competitive production (> 12 GWh/a) of LIB-cells based in Europe supplying the automotive and other key industries are addressed. Another main objective of this WS is the digitization of the battery factory, where novel approaches in the context of industry 4.0 and artificial intelligence are considered.

IPCEI Partner

Alumina Systems

Alumina Systems has been active in the field of vacuum-tight ceramic-metal and ceramic-ceramic components for more than 30 years and is a recognized technological leader in this field.


The company goes back to the Siemens KPW (Keramik- und Porzellanwerk) plant, which was founded in the 70s. Alumina Systems products are used as critical components in various demanding applications and industries as well as in laser, medical and vacuum technology systems. In the end of 2015, Alumina Systems started the first activities in the field of sodium-nickel-chloride-batteries (Na/NiCl2) with delivery of brazed components for research projects. Own activities finally started in 2019.

Description of the project

The aim of the project is to develop a small-scale production line for the verification of technology, feasibility and economical potential of Na/NiCl2 Systems for the European industry. In this scope, the required production techniques for the battery-cell-production and for the battery system-production will be developed and a proof-of-concept will be demonstrated on industrial scale. Long-term tests of battery cells and assembled battery systems have to be conducted in parallel to evaluate the influence of the production process on the cell- and system-properties.



With its four brands BMW, MINI, Rolls-Royce and BMW Motorrad, the BMW Group is the world’s leading premium manufacturer of automobiles and motorcycles and also provides premium financial and mobility services.


The BMW Group production network comprises 31 production and assembly facilities in 15 countries; the company has a global sales network in more than 140 countries.

In 2019, the BMW Group sold over 2.5 million passenger vehicles and more than 175,000 motorcycles worldwide. The profit before tax in the financial year 2019 was € 7.118 billion on revenues amounting to € 104.210 billion. As of 31 December 2019, the BMW Group had a workforce of 126,016 employees.

The success of the BMW Group has always been based on long-term thinking and responsible action. The company has therefore established ecological and social sustainability throughout the value chain, comprehensive product responsibility and a clear commitment to conserving resources as an integral part of its strategy.

Description of the project

BMW’s project targets within the framework of „IPCEI on Batteries“ are design (including definition of cell chemistry), development, prototype production and testing of a highly innovative generation of Lithium ion battery cells. Therefore, several battery cells sample prototypes are built, tested and analyzed. The final target cell will be manufactured on the newly set-up battery cell pilot plant and as proof of concept fully validated as basis for subsequent industrialization by a European cell supplier.
Another significant part of the project is the design of an improved and innovative module and battery pack targeting substantial reduction of production time, cost reduction, increase of energy density (on module and pack level), but in particular leading to a significantly improved recycling ability (e.g. less complicated automated dismantling, optimization of material mix…) as a base of recirculation of materials into production process (circular economy).


Cellforce Group

Cellforce GmbH is a company founded in 2020, whose main goal is to establish cell production capacities for high-energy pouch cells for automotive applications in Europe.


This is not only intended to reduce the supply gap in the field of automotive applications, but also the knowledge gap between R&D and series production.

Description of the project

The goal of the Cellforce project is to develop a high energy pouch cell with extremely low internal resistance. These cells will be able to combine the need for high energy densities with the requirement for fast charging. In addition, a high-quality production line for these cells will be set up as a blueprint for later ramp-up phases. The project uses world-class equipment and state-of-the-art technology to provide a cell product that is competitive on a global scale.



ElringKlinger AG - Development and industrialization of an innovative cell housing design


ElringKlinger is a major Tier 1 supplier for the automotive industry, with around 10,000 employees in 45 locations across the world. The company has been developing lithium-ion battery related products since early 2000 and its background in production of components for the automotive industry means there is a strong focus on design for cost-effective mass production. The company’s core competencies (which include sheet metal forming, injection moulding, tooling, joining, coating, and assembly) lead to lithium-ion battery (LIB) cell housings being a significant value-adding opportunity. In terms of the cell housing components, ElringKlinger has expertise in sealings, cell lid design and manufacturing, as well as experience in the use of lithium-ion cells for the assembly of battery modules and systems.

Description of the project

ElringKlinger will contribute to a competitive, European battery value chain by developing and industrializing an innovative cell housing design. The new design will reduce the number and complexity of components in the cell housings and the consumption of energy-intensive raw materials such as aluminum and copper. ElringKlinger will thus be making a sustainable contribution to climate-neutral, European battery cell production.

Green Energy Storage

GES is an Italian innovative SME that develops redox flow batteries for energy storage applications. The current technology is based on a Harvard patent about a semi-organic flow battery, of which GES bought exclusive rights in 2015. Since its foundation, the company proceeded rapidly with product development with an expedited engineering process designed to build the first 1kW prototype in 2016 and four 2.5 kW prototypes successfully tested in 2018.


GES has developed internal know-how, from R&D&I activities on advanced battery electrodes, membranes, electrolytes and testing of battery cells to full battery system manufacturing

Description of the project

The major innovative nature of the project lies in the fact that GES works on an alternative and emerging technology, different from standard Li-ion. Energy storage will play a key role in the future, and this technology has the advantage of power and energy independent scalability that will fulfil different customer’s needs. Compared to current RFBs, GES ones will be safer, more performing, recyclable and they will be produced with renewable energy, i.e. with a very low CO2 footprint. The foreseen new FID infrastructure will combine high-quality processes, state-of-the-art equipment, and top-level competences.


InoBat Energy

InoBat Energy is a Slovak based company that wants to develop and manufacture its own RFB energy storage system as an Energy Center for long-duration large-scale energy storage, which is not deployed anywhere in the world and represents the state-of-the-art in energy storage systems.


Description of the project

InoBat Energy will develop and deploy the first of its kind RFB energy storage system as an Energy Center and will create IP on the EU level to be disseminated worldwide.
The Energy Center has a potential to play a crucial role in enabling the next phase of the world’s energy transition and decarbonisation efforts. It will be designed for utility scale applications with scalable design from 5MW to 100MW.The InoBat Energy project involves:

  • Unique R&D&I activities resulting in development of own RFB energy storage system as an Energy Center for long-duration storage at large scale.
  • Pilot Energy Center resulting in development and deployment of the first of its kind energy centre and the AI EMS required for deployment.



Founded in 1987, Manz AG is a high-tech mechanical engineering company that operates worldwide.

Germany, Italy

In addition to the turnkey CIGSfab production line in the Solar segment, the company focuses on the automotive industry in the Electronics and Energy Storage segments with economical and competitive equipment for the production of lithium-ion batteries - from the cell to the finished pack - and automated assembly lines for cell contacting systems.
The company group, which has been listed in Germany since 2006, employs 1,500 people in eight countries.

Description of the project

The goal of the "Lithium-Ion Battery Factory of the Future (LBF)" is to develop innovative machines and processes for the production of Generation 3 (Gen3a and Gen3b) and Generation 4 (Gen4) lithium batteries. Specifically, this involves production processes and the associated equipment based on a new, digitized and more cost-effective business model.
Manz will thus make an effective contribution to accelerating the transition to all-solid-state batteries and to building a sustainable and competitive battery industry in Europe.


Midac SpA is an Italian company founded in 1989 that produces lead batteries for motive power automotive and stand-by use.


Since 2014, MIDAC SpA has started the design, development, and production of Li-ion batteries, supported by a strong investment plan in the sector. Midac Spa has two manufacturing plants in Italy (Soave VR and Cremona) and subsidiaries operating in Germany, France, UK, Ireland, Sweden, and Australia. Today Midac is among the European leaders in the production of motive power batteries.

Description of the project

Midac Spa aims the creation of a truly circular value chain regarding the manufacturing and recovery of lithium batteries. MIDAC project cover three IPCEI Work Streams:WS2, WS3 and WS4. Starting from the collection of spent LiBs, MIDAC will be sorting modules/cells for “second use” or “direct recycling”. Through the construction of a recycling plant, MIDAC will obtain raw materials to produce new cells to manufacture “First life” battery pack to be sold it in the industrial field. Using the sorted modules/cells, “second life” batteries will be manufactured to be sold in the energy storage field.



Northvolt is a European supplier of sustainable, high-quality battery cells and systems.

Germany, Sweden

Founded in 2016 to enable the European transition to a decarbonized future, the company has made swift progress on its mission to deliver the world’s greenest lithium-ion battery with a minimal CO2 footprint. As of February 2021, Northvolt has grown to over 1,100 people, representing over 70 nationalities.

Description of the project

Northvolt designs cells and battery systems for automotive, heavy transport, mining, and energy industries, and is also active in developing an ecosystem of battery recycling facilities.
Northvolt’s first battery gigafactory is currently under construction in Skellefteå, northern Sweden. Spread over approximately 500,000 square meters, Northvolt Ett is Europe’s first homegrown Li-ion gigafactory and the only one in the world to be powered with 100% renewable energy. The facility will serve as Northvolt’s primary site for manufacturing of active material, cell assembly, and recycling. Large-scale manufacturing will commence in 2021 and annual capacity will ramp up to at least 32 GWh by 2024, with the potential to expand to 40 GWh in the future.


SGL Carbon

We are leaders in the development and manufacture of products based on carbon, graphite, carbon fibers, and fiber-reinforced composites.

Germany, Poland

In partnership with our customers, we develop intelligent, trendsetting, and sustainable solutions that deliver a clear benefit. With our in-depth material, engineering, and application know-how, we make a substantial contribution to the major future topics mobility, energy, and digitization.

Description of the project

With the development and industrialization of novel manufacturing processes and recycling concepts for innovative anode materials, SGL Carbon aims to make an essential contribution to establishing a sustainable and competitive European value chain and circular economy for lithium-ion batteries. The EU climate targets will be significantly supported by the resulting improved carbon footprint, reduced material and energy use, and increased battery lifetime.

Skeleton Technologies

Skeleton Technologies is Europe’s leading producer of Ultracapacitors. The innovative company was founded 2009 in Estonia and is active in Germany since 2013.


Since 2018, Skeleton Technologies GmbH produces Ultracapacitors for the global market in our plant in Saxony. Ultracapacitors are high power energy storage devices which can be charged and discharged in fractions of seconds and withstand over 1,000,000 charge-discharge cycles. Skeleton Technologies aims at doubling the energy density of Ultracapacitors, using its’ patented „Curved Graphene“ technology.

Description of the project

A sustainable European value chain for Lithium Ion batteries requires the development of hybrid energy storage devices which combine the advantages of Lithium Ion Batteries (high energy density) with those of Ultracapacitors (high power density, long lifetime). In order to decrease costs for these systems, the costs for Ultracapacitors need to decrease, which requires significantly more automation in Ultracapacitor production. The project at hand will introduce industry 4.0 solutions to Ultracapacitor production in order to reduce costs significantly.

Sunlight Group Energy Storage Systems

Sunlight Group Energy Storage Systems, consistent with its vision to develop specialized innovation across the battery value chain, has been investing over the past years in Research and Development around the safest and most advanced Lithium applications.


Through the revolution that lithium technology has brought to the electrification of vehicles, Sunlight Group follows a new business dynamic strategy to numerous sectors: electrical Industrial Vehicles (eIVs), renewables and grid applications, public transport, logistics and automated guided vehicles (AGVs), commercial and leisure maritime industry.

Description of the project

The project focuses on technologies suitable for heavy duty traction, energy storage and marine application. Cell RDI focusses primarily on LFP cathodes based technologies. Cells with high capacity (up to 300Ah) will be produced using an environmentally friendly process (water based). FID of 100 MWh/a (expandable to 200 MWh/a) capacity is planned.
An innovative module concept is also to be developed. The module is to be equipped with a smart and flexible BMS, which can also control different cell types. All the necessary data on the module's usage time will be accessible and will accommodate new business models and second life concepts. FID of 1 GWh capacity is planned.


Varta Micro Innovation


Overview of the IPCEI EuBatIn Work Streams