Workstream 3: Battery Systems

The aim of this WS is to develop key innovations for the implementation of the produced battery cells into battery packs and modules. Towards the upstream direction of the battery value chain, the battery packs developed in WS 3 focus on modular approaches for battery cells and therefore impose a cell package design for the assembly of LIBs. Thus, the battery disassembling process and the recycling process can be optimized with a standardized cell package design.

Another aim is to improve the battery management system (BMS) in terms of easy maintenance, control and support, also for next generation cells. Further, the battery modules and packs should be designed to meet the applications requirements in terms of high fast charging, thermal management and safety, also by integration of ultracapacitors into hybrid battery systems (HBS). Work is performed on an integrated safety approach to allow for controlled heat and energy control in case of thermal runaways of single battery cells.

In the field of energy storage battery systems this WS is aiming for standardization, modularity and connectivity, with an eye on long cycle life, repurposing and serving multiple applications or locations. Hence, the eco design for the 2nd life application or recycling purposes is addressed as well, leading to significant reduction of the CO2 footprint within the battery value chain due to optimized interactions.

For industrial applications, relatively small volumes, diverse requirement profiles, and high development costs for battery systems can lead to slow adaptation of novel technology. The successful development of novel battery systems needs to integrate state-of-the-art results of previous workstreams while addressing more vehemently time-to-market, development costs, platform development, automation, etc. This in turn calls an ecosystem consisting of industrial and production equipment manufacturers, battery technology providers, component manufacturers, test partners and test equipment manufacturers.

IPCEI Partner

Alumina Systems

Alumina Systems has been active in the field of vacuum-tight ceramic-metal and ceramic-ceramic components for more than 30 years and is a recognized technological leader in this field.


The company goes back to the Siemens KPW (Keramik- und Porzellanwerk) plant, which was founded in the 70s. Alumina Systems products are used as critical components in various demanding applications and industries as well as in laser, medical and vacuum technology systems. In the end of 2015, Alumina Systems started the first activities in the field of sodium-nickel-chloride-batteries (Na/NiCl2) with delivery of brazed components for research projects. Own activities finally started in 2019.

Description of the project

The aim of the project is to develop a small-scale production line for the verification of technology, feasibility and economical potential of Na/NiCl2 Systems for the European industry. In this scope, the required production techniques for the battery-cell-production and for the battery system-production will be developed and a proof-of-concept will be demonstrated on industrial scale. Long-term tests of battery cells and assembled battery systems have to be conducted in parallel to evaluate the influence of the production process on the cell- and system-properties.



AVL is the world's largest independent company for the development, simulation and testing of powertrain systems and their integration into various vehicle types.


AVL provides complete and integrated development environments, measurement and test systems as well as state-of-the-art simulation methods for the development and optimization of powertrain systems.
As a pioneer in the field of innovative solutions, AVL is increasingly taking on new tasks in the field of autonomous driving, as well as diverse electrification strategies for powertrains, including battery systems and fuel cell systems.

Description of the project

Within the IPCEI project, AVL is targeting to enhance the overall quality within module and pack production starting at the incoming inspection of different cell types throughout the complete assembly process. In addition, AVL will develop new processes within the module production to reduce overall cost and efforts. Furthermore the topic of zero net CO2 production environment will also be covered by our project in detail and is supposed to end in a lighthouse factory approach. As a base factory environment the Battery Innovation Center by AVL as an European R&D hub will be available soon.


With its four brands BMW, MINI, Rolls-Royce and BMW Motorrad, the BMW Group is the world’s leading premium manufacturer of automobiles and motorcycles and also provides premium financial and mobility services.


The BMW Group production network comprises 31 production and assembly facilities in 15 countries; the company has a global sales network in more than 140 countries.

In 2019, the BMW Group sold over 2.5 million passenger vehicles and more than 175,000 motorcycles worldwide. The profit before tax in the financial year 2019 was € 7.118 billion on revenues amounting to € 104.210 billion. As of 31 December 2019, the BMW Group had a workforce of 126,016 employees.

The success of the BMW Group has always been based on long-term thinking and responsible action. The company has therefore established ecological and social sustainability throughout the value chain, comprehensive product responsibility and a clear commitment to conserving resources as an integral part of its strategy.

Description of the project

BMW’s project targets within the framework of „IPCEI on Batteries“ are design (including definition of cell chemistry), development, prototype production and testing of a highly innovative generation of Lithium ion battery cells. Therefore, several battery cells sample prototypes are built, tested and analyzed. The final target cell will be manufactured on the newly set-up battery cell pilot plant and as proof of concept fully validated as basis for subsequent industrialization by a European cell supplier.
Another significant part of the project is the design of an improved and innovative module and battery pack targeting substantial reduction of production time, cost reduction, increase of energy density (on module and pack level), but in particular leading to a significantly improved recycling ability (e.g. less complicated automated dismantling, optimization of material mix…) as a base of recirculation of materials into production process (circular economy).



Endurance Spa, subsidiary of Endurance Overseas, the European holding company of the Endurance Group, is a Tier One supplier to European automotive OEMs, focusing on engine and transmission components.


Products portfolio includes rough and machined aluminium castings (both high pressure and gravity die castings), module assembling (i.e. valve covers for ICE - Internal Combustion Engine). Endurance’s vision relies on achieving and maintaining leadership in technology and product reliability, growing as a complete solution provider of automotive components, staying ahead in a rapidly evolving market .

Description of the project

Endurance is willing to develop innovative swapping battery modules housings, ready for both transportation and other applications, designed for easy handling, lower environmental impact and better materials management and recycling.       
The swapping concept (meaning a battery unit easily taken-off from the system to which is providing energy to be re-allocated in a charging system designed on purpose) will be applied not only for shortening charging time of battery systems in transportation (i.e. E-Car, E-scooters, E- motorcycles, E-bikes), but also for energy storage in civil appliances, generating second revenue streams for the same product, helping in lowering prices for EVs, setting-up an environment friendly approach and support urban community’s habits evolution towards E-products .




Enel X

Enel X, Enel Group’s global business line, is a leader in the energy sector, offering services that accelerate innovation and boost the energy transition.


Through its advanced solutions, Enel X provides each partner with an ecosystem of tech platforms and consulting services, focusing on sustainability and circular economy principles in order to provide an alternative model that respects the environment and integrates technological innovation into daily life. Each solution has the power to turn decarbonization, electrification and digitalization goals into sustainable actions for everyone.

Description of the projects

Enel X is proposing 3 projects:
•    High Power Chargers for EVs with Battery Storage, with innovative and flexible architecture also for providing grid services, and with some sites equipped with second life batteries
•    Advanced SW for optimally managing Battery Energy Storage systems, also applied to second life batteries,
•    Recycling of EV and stationary batteries: R&D&I activities on advanced automatization,  optimization of processes, definition of best practice for optimally managing exhausted batteries


ENERGO-AQUA a.s. has been operating on the Slovak hydro power market since 2004 and its aim is to prepare, implement and operate small hydropower plants.


At the beginning, it focused mainly on energy consulting services. Since then, the company diversified its business portfolio, and its core activities are:

  • providing energy services to produce electricity from renewable energy sources (RES) through the operation of SHPP,
  • providing engineering and supervising in the field of energy,
  • production of green electricity from RES,
  • modernization of existing operating hydroelectric power plants.

Description of the project

The project focuses on the development and production of a battery energy storage system based on 2nd life batteries (SLB ESS). In applications, SLBESS are no different from energy storage built on new modules. It is the price that plays a crucial role in their use and also significant environmental benefits.
In its RDI part, the project solves the management of SLB modules, design of equipment, and components of SLBESS. The product of the project is a containerised energy storage system based on SLB, designed especially for the application.


FPT Industrial

FPT Industrial is a brand of CNH Industrial, dedicated to the design, production and sale of powertrains for on and off-road vehicles, marine and power generation applications.


The company employs more than 8,000 people worldwide, in ten manufacturing plants and eight R&D Centres. The brand is the leader in the low emission engines and offers the most complete Natural Gas line-up on the market for industrial applications. In 2018, FPT Industrial displayed its e-Powertrain organization, boost its effort in this segment.

Description of the project

FPT Industrial’s priorities at the R&D&I stage include the development of a battery pack design with a modular concept using a top-down approach based on target industrial on- and off-road application, and new specific BMS hardware and software developed to adapt to the modular battery pack concept. Its activities at the Final Investment Decision stage include the final product testing and validation of battery packs at vehicle level, as well as the installation, upscaling and optimisation of the finale production lines.



InoBat Energy

InoBat Energy is a Slovak based company that wants to develop and manufacture its own RFB energy storage system as an Energy Center for long-duration large-scale energy storage, which is not deployed anywhere in the world and represents the state-of-the-art in energy storage systems.


Description of the project

InoBat Energy will develop and deploy the first of its kind RFB energy storage system as an Energy Center and will create IP on the EU level to be disseminated worldwide.
The Energy Center has a potential to play a crucial role in enabling the next phase of the world’s energy transition and decarbonisation efforts. It will be designed for utility scale applications with scalable design from 5MW to 100MW.The InoBat Energy project involves:

  • Unique R&D&I activities resulting in development of own RFB energy storage system as an Energy Center for long-duration storage at large scale.
  • Pilot Energy Center resulting in development and deployment of the first of its kind energy centre and the AI EMS required for deployment.



Founded in 1987, Manz AG is a high-tech mechanical engineering company that operates worldwide.

Germany, Italy

In addition to the turnkey CIGSfab production line in the Solar segment, the company focuses on the automotive industry in the Electronics and Energy Storage segments with economical and competitive equipment for the production of lithium-ion batteries - from the cell to the finished pack - and automated assembly lines for cell contacting systems.
The company group, which has been listed in Germany since 2006, employs 1,500 people in eight countries.

Description of the project

The goal of the "Lithium-Ion Battery Factory of the Future (LBF)" is to develop innovative machines and processes for the production of Generation 3 (Gen3a and Gen3b) and Generation 4 (Gen4) lithium batteries. Specifically, this involves production processes and the associated equipment based on a new, digitized and more cost-effective business model.
Manz will thus make an effective contribution to accelerating the transition to all-solid-state batteries and to building a sustainable and competitive battery industry in Europe.


Miba AG is one of the leading partners to the international automotive industries.


Miba is a technology driven company with a significant research and development capability that resulted in 54 patents in 2019. Many of them in eMobility and Batteries.
Miba Battery Systems GmbHocuses on battery components (cooling/heating/sensing), safety components and electric motors (engineering and production equipment). Miba eMobility GmbH is introducing an innovative battery cooling system compatible with structural battery pack design – the liquid based and flexible heat exchanger FLEXcooler®, improving energy density, safety, resource efficiency and recyclability.

Description of the project

The IPCEI project suggested by Miba evolves around the challenge to advance the design, materials and production to the innovative heat exchanger product in a trend-setting development and production facility “FLEXfab”.
The activities will be in the following work streams:

  • battery systems (WS3, main activity)
  • recycling and sustainability (WS4, effected activity)




MIBA BATTERY SYSTEMS GmbH is a high-tech company with focus on battery development and battery module/pack production.


The company was officially founded in 2019 but the starting point for R&D in the field of batteries go back to the year 2008. MIBA BATTERY SYSTEMS´s long term strategy is to become a leading provider of battery packs with a competitive edge in reliability, safety and cleanness. The manufacturing processes will be decentralized with flexible production facilities. This production points will be called VOLTfactory®.

Description of the project

The intention of the MIBA BATTERY SYSTEMS IPCEI project is to realize a highly automated, cutting-edge battery-pack production that serves as lighthouse for innovative/flexible and regional production of outstanding products in a high-cost country in the heart of Europe.




Midac SpA is an Italian company founded in 1989 that produces lead batteries for motive power automotive and stand-by use.


Since 2014, MIDAC SpA has started the design, development, and production of Li-ion batteries, supported by a strong investment plan in the sector. Midac Spa has two manufacturing plants in Italy (Soave VR and Cremona) and subsidiaries operating in Germany, France, UK, Ireland, Sweden, and Australia. Today Midac is among the European leaders in the production of motive power batteries.

Description of the project

Midac Spa aims the creation of a truly circular value chain regarding the manufacturing and recovery of lithium batteries. MIDAC project cover three IPCEI Work Streams:WS2, WS3 and WS4. Starting from the collection of spent LiBs, MIDAC will be sorting modules/cells for “second use” or “direct recycling”. Through the construction of a recycling plant, MIDAC will obtain raw materials to produce new cells to manufacture “First life” battery pack to be sold it in the industrial field. Using the sorted modules/cells, “second life” batteries will be manufactured to be sold in the energy storage field.


Rimac Automobili

Rimac Automobili Ltd is a young, fast progressing company, founded in 2009.


Main business is development and production of the world’s highest performance electric sportscars and key components for vehicle electrification. Hyundai Motor Corporation, Kia Motors and Porsche are minority shareholders and investors in Rimac. The main technology field are battery systems, powertrain systems of high-performance and high efficiency, cutting-edge chargers and DC/DC converter, autonomous driving systems infotainment system hardware and software and Torque Vectoring & controls algorithms.

Description of the project

Within this IPCEI application, Rimac will be performing three battery systems related R&D projects, setting up infrastructure for realization and industrialization of project results (R&D lab, battery testing facility, pilot production plant and implementation of industry 4.0 processes and methods). The goal is to be the battery-system technology leader in the high-performance segment, with highest energy and power density on the market as well as to have a safe, cost-effective and scalable system that can be quickly adapted to many applications.



Rosendahl Nextrom

Rosendahl Nextrom GmbH is a high innovative world market and technology leader in the lead-acid battery and fiber and cable machinery industry and in developing new production technologies for Lithium-ion batteries.


Description of the project

The development of innovative production systems is an important key factor to improve European competitiveness in the field of battery production. Current assembly concepts resulting in rigid systems which are not allowing any kind of flexibility without installing additional workarounds.

We are focusing on a highly flexible production solution without sacrificing the cost-effectiveness of flow production and having the ability to be easy scalable.

A core element includes a R&D&I centre to carry out process and production developments to reach a new agile automated manufacturing solution.

The activities will be in the following work streams:

  • battery systems (WS3, main activity)


Skeleton Technologies

Skeleton Technologies is Europe’s leading producer of Ultracapacitors. The innovative company was founded 2009 in Estonia and is active in Germany since 2013.


Since 2018, Skeleton Technologies GmbH produces Ultracapacitors for the global market in our plant in Saxony. Ultracapacitors are high power energy storage devices which can be charged and discharged in fractions of seconds and withstand over 1,000,000 charge-discharge cycles. Skeleton Technologies aims at doubling the energy density of Ultracapacitors, using its’ patented „Curved Graphene“ technology.

Description of the project

A sustainable European value chain for Lithium Ion batteries requires the development of hybrid energy storage devices which combine the advantages of Lithium Ion Batteries (high energy density) with those of Ultracapacitors (high power density, long lifetime). In order to decrease costs for these systems, the costs for Ultracapacitors need to decrease, which requires significantly more automation in Ultracapacitor production. The project at hand will introduce industry 4.0 solutions to Ultracapacitor production in order to reduce costs significantly.

Sunlight Group Energy Storage Systems

Sunlight Group Energy Storage Systems, consistent with its vision to develop specialized innovation across the battery value chain, has been investing over the past years in Research and Development around the safest and most advanced Lithium applications.


Through the revolution that lithium technology has brought to the electrification of vehicles, Sunlight Group follows a new business dynamic strategy to numerous sectors: electrical Industrial Vehicles (eIVs), renewables and grid applications, public transport, logistics and automated guided vehicles (AGVs), commercial and leisure maritime industry.

Description of the project

The project focuses on technologies suitable for heavy duty traction, energy storage and marine application. Cell RDI focusses primarily on LFP cathodes based technologies. Cells with high capacity (up to 300Ah) will be produced using an environmentally friendly process (water based). FID of 100 MWh/a (expandable to 200 MWh/a) capacity is planned.
An innovative module concept is also to be developed. The module is to be equipped with a smart and flexible BMS, which can also control different cell types. All the necessary data on the module's usage time will be accessible and will accommodate new business models and second life concepts. FID of 1 GWh capacity is planned.


Valmet Automotive

The Valmet Automotive Group is one of the largest vehicle contract manufacturers in the world, In its strategic development,


Valmet Automotive Group focuses on electromobility with developing and supplying modules as well as battery systems. The EV Systems business line illustrates the revolution taking currently place in automotive and industrial off-high way application sectors – electrification is sweeping the industry, and the demand for EV systems, especially battery packs, is soaring.

Description of the project

With VA Industrial Battery Innovation Center initiative VA will create and engineer equipment electrification solutions to support industrial customers with product design capabilities to successfully implement an electric drivetrain. Implementing common platforms and modularity in product design, battery production and life-cycle management will provide the systemic design approach, which will be needed to meet the requirements and customization needs of harsh use equipment manufacturers.



Overview of the IPCEI EuBatIn Work Streams